Most of us think of electric cars as something new. Critics also think of them as less reliable and less powerful than the standard gasoline or diesel-powered cars, and they’ve got something of a reputation as being for the more environmentally-minded. They’re new, they’re trendy, they’re still being developed, only, they’re not that new.
A couple of different styles of electric cars were developed as early as 1830, and by 1897 they were being used as taxis in London. The introduction of the electric cars didn’t go off without a hitch, though. Because cars were originally sharing the streets with horse-drawn carriages, many were afraid that the scary vehicles would spook the horses and cause accidents. Until November 1896, there was a law in Britain that all cars had to be led by a man waving a red flag, warning others in the area that a car was approaching.
The Red Flag Act was ultimately repealed, and the car’s popularity soared when the Prince of Wales rode in one.
By 1897, there was a fleet of 75 Bersey taxis throughout London, and they were electric. There were also a number of electric taxis humming their way around New York City.
The cars had a range of about 30 miles, which sounds like an impractically short distance; but traveling through London blocks, they were ideal for city driving. Their top speed was only about 12 mph, which again, for city driving wasn’t too bad at the turn of the century. A ride in one of the two-ton electric taxis cost as much as a ride in a horse-drawn one, and there was seemingly only one major drawback. People needed some time to get used to the electric lights that were mounted on the inside and outside of the cars.
Rather than taking the time to recharge the batteries, the Bersey taxis were built so they could have their batteries replaced quickly. This meant only a quick two- or three-minute stop at their home station, and they were back out on the road.
The benefits of the electric cars were much like they are today. Electricity was renewable, the cars were quiet, all but eliminating the worrisome possibilities of spooking the 11,000 or so horses that were already working on the city streets, and largely pollution-free. Another huge benefit was that the cars weren’t started by the troublesome crank handles that many people had a tough time turning. Those went away with the electric cars’ invention of the electric starter.
Electricity was still insanely expensive at this time, though, and producing enough to power the cars means that Bersey didn’t just need to build, manufacture and maintain the cars, they also needed to generate their own power. The cars were also subject to massive amounts of wear and tear, mostly generated from the vibrations of running across London’s uneven, car-unfriendly roads. Glass broke, tires wore thin, and engines broke down.
Bersey’s taxi company lost more than £6,000 in its first year, a staggering amount for the late 1800s. They hadn’t counted on the upkeep that the cars would need, and ended up going out of business in 1899. Today, there’s only one of Bersey’s electric cars known to still exist, and it’s in London’s Science Museum.
It’s a beautiful work of Victorian scientific ingenuity, that might have made today’s world a very different place if it had been more cost-effective.